Before you pitch your tarp or tent for the night or before you build your quinzee, you want to let the snow firm up or sinter. Sintering of snow is when snow crystals lose their points due to molecular motion, wind, and direct pressure.
Initially, snow falls as individual flakes or snow crystals, but pointy crystals and sharp angles are not as thermodynamically stable as more rounded crystals.
In nature, crystals lose their points due to molecular motion, wind, and direct pressure. Physically breaking the snow crystals, for instance stomping on them or disturbing them with a shovel, will produce the same effect. The crystal arms are broken and then rounded grains fuse by freezing into larger crystals in a process called sintering. Snow crystals resulting from destructive metamorphism compact easily and can become very hard and dense.
Rounding and sintering stabilize the new snow and, along with gravity, cause it to settle. Thus, there is a net loss of height- which causes settlement.
As an avid snowshoer I know how important gaiters are to keeping snow from slipping in-between your pants and the top of your boots. Snow gaiters can keep both your pants and feet dry when you snowshoe in the deep stuff.
Gaiters for snowshoeing are usually longer than hiking gaiters and typically extend up near the knees. They are made of thicker material and are highly water repellent. Because the user will want to make adjustments while wearing gloves or mittens they usually have easily manipulated snaps and/or Velcro to secure them on top of your leg and boots.
Gaiter shopping tips:
Make sure your snow gaiters have a means of securing them at the top so that you can keep the gaiters cinched around your leg. The last thing you want is your gaiters sliding down your calves!
Look for gaiters with cords or straps that are replaceable. You want your gear to be useful for many years. If there is a strap or cord that runs below your boot it will eventually wear out. Look for gaiters where you can easily replace those straps or cords.
The 104th snowshoed 700 miles in about 35 days, carrying or pulling their supplies and equipment. They did this in one of the coldest and snowiest winters on record. Their orders were to march from Fredericton, New Brunswick in eastern Canada to Kingston, Ontario to help protect that city from the expected American attack during the War of 1812.
There were several reasons that the young country of America felt war with Britain was justified and necessary. The first was a series of trade restrictions Britain instituted to hinder trade between the U.S. and France. Britain was in the midst of a two decade war with France and was trying to deny supplies to their perennial foes.
In order to keep their ships manned, the British navy began pressing men into the navy. Britain did not recognize British immigrants to America as anything but still British. Because of this policy a lot of naturalized American sailors got pressed into service aboard British warships. In fact, Britain wasn’t too strict on whether the sailors they pressed into service were actually British at one time or not. You could say that Britain had an official policy of kidnapping citizens of others countries.
Also at this time Americans were moving into the interior of the country, displacing aboriginal people. In the ensuing violence, the Americans believed the British were arming the aboriginal people and encouraging them to resist the American settlers.
For these reasons the U.S. felt that Britain wasn’t recognizing American sovereignty and that war was necessary.
In the early part of the war things were not going well for Britain. The majority of British troops were already fully engaged in Europe in the war against France. Thus the order was given for the 104th to make their way from New Brunswick to help reinforce the troops at Kingston and since it was February and the rivers were frozen and travel by ship was impossible. They would have to march.
And march they did, with more than 570 men leaving the barracks in Fredericton between Feb. 16 and 21 and heading up the St. John River. Their marching started each day just after first light and continued until about 2:30 p.m. when they would stop and make camp. If they were lucky, they would be able to find accommodations in barns or other buildings. If not, they had to build temporary huts by using their snowshoes to shovel the four or five feet to the ground, then propping small trees around the low snow wall to form a roof frame. Pine boughs were then placed on this to form a roof. In the middle of this hut was a fire pit. Their mattresses were more pine boughs. While some of the men were building the huts, others were getting fires going to thaw out their supper of pork and biscuits.
The marching was hard going, especially given that the winter was especially cold and snowy. Every two men were issued a toboggan to carry their gear and up to 14 days provisions. The man in front would pull the toboggan and the man in back held a stick that was attached to the back to help push or hold it back on the downhills. Each pair of men took their turn leading for 10 to 15 minutes to break trail, then they would stand aside to let the regiment pass and rejoin the rear.
Even though each man was required to carry their own gear on the toboggan it really wasn’t that much. Everyone was issued a rifle with 30 rounds of shot, a pair of snowshoes, moccasins, one blanket, a fur cap, mittens and a scarf along with their uniform and greatcoat along with 14 days of provisions. Lieutenant Rainsford of the 104th described their clothing as “poor and scanty, their snowshoes and moccasins miserably made; even their mitts were of poor, thin yarn.” The previous summer an American privateer captured new uniforms destined for the 104th so what they were wearing was old and tattered.
The first section of the route of the 104th was what was called the Grand Communications Route which was up the St. John and Madawaska rivers, on to Lake Temiscouata, overland to the St. Lawrence River and then on to Quebec City. They stayed in Quebec for two weeks before continuing along the St. Lawrence to Kingston at the eastern edge of Lake Ontario.
The records of the march are conflicting but it appears that of the 570 or so soldiers who started the march, only three did not finish. One died on route. Another was left behind with an escort because of severe frostbite. But that’s not to say that they were in great shape at the end. Frostbite was common.
Another ailment many of the men suffered from was mal de raquette which is an inflammation of the Achilles tendon caused by spending too much time on snowshoes. Although the records don’t tell us how many, one of the commanders reported that many had died after the march and many more were sick in the hospital. Those that were healthy enough went into battle in the spring. For enduring these hardships a private in the 104th regiment would earn the not so princely sum of 18 pounds and five shillings per year. For comparison a farm hand at the same time would earn in the vicinity of 30 pounds annually.
During the first stage of the march the men were making from 15 to 22 miles per day or two to three miles per hour. While this may not seem fast it really is incredible. These men were doing this march in hardwood and rawhide snowshoes. Equipment that was a lot heavier than my aluminum shoes. Winter in this part of Canada can be pretty brutal but by all accounts 1813 was a particularly bad winter.
The snowfall was reported to be heavier than in the previous nine years and it was cold, with the mercury dropping to -27degrees Fahrenheit on one occasion. And there wasn’t any down filled clothes at that time. They had to stay as warm as they could in woolen overcoats and thin mittens. And the nights wouldn’t have been any more comfortable. One wool blanket was what each man was issued. And we all know that food is our fuel. I doubt that the calorie count of their daily ration of one pound of pork (including bones) and 10 ounces of biscuit washed down with tea, coffee or hot chocolate would have supplied enough energy to satisfy their requirements.
Yes, these men were tough. So the next time you are debating going snowshoeing because it’s too cold or windy or maybe you don’t have the right clothes. Or you back out of an overnight trip because all you have is a three season tent or your mummy bag is only rated to -15, think of the 104th and get out there and enjoy whatever the weather gods throw at you.
Written by Doug Scott this article was published on
Over the last few years, there has been tremendous growth in snowshoeing, with participation up 43% from 2006 to 2009, according to the latest SIA Intelligence Report. This growth reflects a shift toward affordable, healthy recreational activity.
Did You Know…
46% of snowshoers are women
12% of snowshoers are children aged 7-17
55% of snowshoers are under the age of 45
1.4 million people identify themselves as snowshoers, a 60% increase in the last decade
Snowshoes have been in use for 6000 years and were one of the earliest forms of transportation. Anyone can snowshoe—It is as simple as walking. Snowshoes are easy to put on and take off, just like putting on another pair of shoes. Snowshoeing requires modest physical effort with no fancy techniques or theories to learn. A beginner’s learning curve is immediate.
Snowshoes are highly maneuverable so, outdoor enthusiasts can go where cross country skiers and snowmobiles cannot. Snowshoeing offers participants the peaceful, quiet serenity of a snow-covered landscape –a great activity for the body and soul.
The benefits of snowshoeing include exercise, fitness and social/adventure aspects.
Want to know how many calories are burned when walking and hiking? Let’s just say that both are fantastic ways to spend an hour or more of your time. You can enjoy the fresh air, nature, beautiful vistas, and burn more calories than in most other activities!
Assuming 1 hour of activity, and a person that weighs 150 pounds, there are a lot of calories to be burned with some of our favorite outdoor activities.
Backpacking: 476 calories burned per hour!
Hiking: 408 calories burned per hour!
Walking: 170 calories burned walking on a flat surface at 2 miles per hour (a pretty slow pace!)
Snowshoeing: You burn 500+ calories during 60 minutes of snowshoeing!
When you snowshoe, you can burn up to 45% more calories than walking or running at the same speed. Several factors contribute to this increase. First, exercising in cold weather increases your metabolic rate. Second, you are walking with added weight on your feet- providing the same effect as wearing ankle weights. And there is the added resistance of moving through snow.
The number of calories you burn snowshoeing will depend upon four factors: the terrain, the condition of the snow (packed or powder), your pace (and whether or not you use poles) and your body size. For example, if you are small, say 120 pounds, and you walk on packed snow and flat terrain for an hour you will burn about 360 calories. That’s quite a few, for just an hour of walking.
At the other end of the spectrum, if you are 180 pounds, and run on snowshoes on packed, flat snow for an hour you can burn over 1000 calories!
Snowshoeing is a cross-training conditioning sport, offering a low-impact, safe form of exercise. It is ideal for anyone interested in an aerobic workout combined with strength training and muscle endurance.
Snowshoeing is a great aerobic exercise that will improve or maintain cardiovascular fitness as well as burn calories.
Snowshoeing uses every major muscle group at relatively high intensity for extended periods of time, thus requiring high caloric expenditure.
Research has shown that individuals who substitute snowshoeing for running during the winter actually improve their running fitness over those who chose to run as their primary source of winter training.
The physical demands of snowshoeing can build up endurance levels and strengthen quadriceps for runners.
Muscles used are similar to those used in walking and hiking hilly terrain. Hip flexors may receive more of a workout and quads may get more exercise than usual in walking due to the lifting motion of each step.
Climbing in snowshoes works the hip flexors and extensors, crucial muscles for cyclists.
The use of poles while snowshoeing gets the upper body moving and helps condition arms, shoulders and back muscles.
Snowshoeing can accommodate a variety of activities—a casual hike in the woods, an overnight backpacking trip or an alpine climb.
Snowshoeing is a very inexpensive way to spend time with the entire family.
With a nearly immediate learning curve, snowshoeing provides hours of fun for adults and children of all ages.
Simplicity is perhaps one of the biggest draws to this sport. Snowshoes can be used in various types of snow conditions so, no matter what the weather, everyone can enjoy the great outdoors.
The need to urinate at night increases in direct relation to the hour past midnight, layers of clothing worn, occupants in your tent, and inches of new snowfall. Curiously, it increases in ‘inverse’ relation to the decreasing outside temperature.
Sticks emerge through the snow at a rate proportional with the time.
The weight of your backpack increases in direct relationship with the length of your hike and the depth of the snow.
Your warmest item of clothing will be the one that torn, wet or forgotten.
Tent stakes come only in the quantity ‘N-1′ where N is the number of stakes necessary to stake down a tent. The quantity of N-1 tent stakes will all be of length L-1″ where L is the length needed to reach solid snowpack.
All food assumes a common taste and color when freeze-dried.
Divide the number of servings by two when reading the directions for reconstituting anything freeze-dried.
The person hiking in front of you will randomly dislodge snow from all tree branches above your head. If you remain a safe distance behind the person in front of you, then the person behind you will randomly tap those same branches with their trekking pole, dislodging the snow before they reach the branch.
The actual comfortable sleep rating for your sleeping bag is 15 degrees more than what was advertised.
When sharing gear with a group three will bring stoves and no one will bring a cooking kit.
Your backpack’s weight will not be affected by the amount of food eaten out of it.
The loudness of your tent mate’s snoring during night grows in direct correlation to your need for sleep.
The sun sets 47% faster than normal when setting up camp. It sets another 28% faster if freezing rain is eminent.
Of a 25% chance of freezing rain, 100% will fall in your campsite.
When snowshoeing you take half as many downhill steps as uphill.
30% of a backpack’s contents could have been left at home.
The number of times the trip is described in a story is directly proportional to the misery experienced during the trip.
WinterCampers.com takes a break at the trail intersection between John Pond and Puffer Pond.
Break time is used to add or subtract layers of clothing- usually subtracting if you are snowshoeing in and carrying a backpack. On the far right Cousin Don is shedding his sweater. Rob (red backpack) and Jason (blue backpack) have lashed
Break time is also good for drinks and snacks. Ian is sitting the center of the group and hydrating from a Nalgene bottle. Len is slightly obscured in the right side background as he digs through his backpack for a quick snack.